Australia

So Where The Bloody Hell Are Ya?

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Perhaps when audiences of media content are approached and questioned to think about comedy in Australia we’re inclined to think about works that are iconic to our country and have seen success overseas about how the stereotypes we embrace are laughed at and with by a global responder. These shows or movies could include The Castle or the Crocodile Dundee franchise. The way these, particularly Crocodile Dundee, use the accumulated stereotypes Australians are sometimes identified as to convey humour and perhaps a new way to view a culture is seemingly harmless and increases our popularity with places like the USA and UK. However, our humour when it comes to producing content for our own audiences seems to lack the same integrity and morality, and is usually exaggerated to the point of shock laughter.

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Audiences are attracted to cultural products ‘that are close in cultural content and style to the audience’s own culture(s)’ (Straubhaar, 2007)

Movies then create a whole new commercial market with its content that includes new or “best case scenario” footage of countries that have desirable locations. With the example of Crocodile Dundee, the humour showcased by lead protagonist Paul Hogan in mannerisms as well as the way he interacted with the land resonated with people. As well as this, tourism Australia have initiated collaborations with the film and more specifically, Kakadu National Park. This was the site for the majority of the filming of the movie

Crocodile Dundee had an incredibly powerful impact on the destination. The Paul Hogan character and the stunning landscapes of Kakadu combined to present a powerful image that had rarely been seen before on the screen.”Chair of Kakadu Tourism, Rick Allert, said that conditions were perfect a major revival in tourism to the national park. ”

The Crocodile Dundee movies were hugely successful and the scenes filmed in Australia provided wonderful exposure for our country’s raw nature and warm and welcoming people, embodied by Paul Hogan as the likable larrikin Mick Dundee.

Roger Riley is a doctoral student and Carlton Van Doren is a professor at the Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism Sciences at Texas A&M University and they’ve released an insight into the growing nature of using film and the comedic interaction with the landscapes within a culture to draw the audiences in the US to a film such as Crocodile Dundee, thus:

“Along with the notion of US tourists travelling to movie sites within the USA the paper suggests that the movie ‘Crocodile Dundee’ increased awareness of Australia’s attractions in the minds of potential travellers. Reasons for attraction potential appear to lie within the motivations of escape, pilgrimage and a quest for untainted environments. These motivations are illuminated for the viewing public through movie story lines offering extended periods of vicarious contact with the destination and its attraction features.”

kakadu-national-park

This builds on the notions of satire VS. Documentary. Obviously some of the scenes and events portrayed in the film had to be amplified for the entertainment aspect, however, witty one liners and uncanny resemblance to outback Australia and particular where I’ve grown up in Central West NSW, these depictions are often resonated in remote areas. We see a lot of exchange students and backpackers choosing  to come and live in remote isolated areas with a passion to experience a “red dirt” mentality. Perhaps an interesting path of research would be to understand if these individuals do infact base their travelling endevours on Media content they’ve been showcased to, and if the ability Australia has developed to “make fun of our sterotypes” in comedic lights in fact helps our culture grow and have an easy, approachable relationship globally.

Tourism Australia 2016, Crocodile Dundee anniversary to boost Kakadu tourism, Tourism Australia: Corporate Website, viewed 31st October 2016, <http://www.tourism.australia.com/news/news-stories-17925.aspx&gt;

Roger W. Riley, Carlton S. Van Doren 1992, Tourism Management: Movies as tourism promotion: A ‘pull’ factor in a ‘push’ locationVolume 13, Issue 3, September 1992, Pages 267-274, Available online 23 April 2002, <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/026151779290098R> 

Moran, A., 2009. TV formats worldwide: localizing global programs . Intellect books. [Chapters 11 and 15]

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Auto-Ethnographic Research: Production, Consumption and Representation of Drones in China and the Asian-Pacific Response

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An auto ethnographic response to regulation and policy in the Asian-pacific region had the potential to investigate a number of possibilities and reasons why these certain laws were in place. So this is how I decided to structure my project initially and accumulate a number of statistics and expertise in the area of Drone flying within Australia and overseas to accumulate the idea of a “responsible pilot”. Consistent of this approach to research, I found myself exploring and researching into something completely different, in the Chinese position globally with drones and UAVs (un-manned aerial vehicles) and the Asian-Pacific response. This idea of the use of narrative in conducting a research train of thought worked for me as I could draw from personal experience in drone technology, and collect information that’s happening now in terms of production, consumption and representation of drones in China. I purchased a Parrot A.R Drone 2.0 to fly and video various elements of agriculture and examine the way it can improve productivity and investigate the all-round usefulness of the technology for farmers. Whilst I learnt the controls, I couldn’t help but notice the (mostly Chinese) international students gathering around and looking out the window of the spectacle. This influenced me in a development of my investigation to focus on China, still taking into account surrounding countries and their stance on the new platform.

I got my own basic pamphlet within the box detailing the rules here in Australia to which I’d like to contrast with that in China and Japan particularly and then explore why this could be the case.  Current Australian Regulation according to UAV international looks like this:

General Australian Drone Laws:

You may NOT fly your drone closer than 30 meters to vehicles, boats or buildings that are on private property or you must have explicit permission from the private property owner.

You may NOT fly your drone over populated areas such as beaches, other people’s backyards, heavily populated parks or sports areas where games are currently in session.

You may NOT operate your drone within 5.5 Km radius of any aerodrome, airfield, airport, seaplane taking off or landing, or helicopter landing sites located at hospitals, police stations or other locations. It is YOUR RESPONSIBILITY to be aware of your surroundings and ignorance is no defence.

You may ONLY operate your drone during daylight.

You MUST ONLY operate your drone in good weather conditions and maintain visual contact with your UAV at all times.

You may NOT fly your drone above 400 feet (123 meters).

UAV must NOT drop or discharge an object from your drone that poses a risk to another aircraft, persons or property.

Approval is required for operation of a drone weighing 150 Kilograms (fixed wing) or 100 Kilograms (rotary wing).

A drone must NOT be operated within 30 meters of a person not directly associated with the operation of that UAV.

You may NOT operate a drone using FPV equipment.

Regulation in regards to the use of drones in Asia varies from country to country, from completely outlawed to slowly adapting the popularity and changing aerospace laws to suit consumer needs.

China are currently reviewing extensively their drone regulations and  have a general set of policies in place to cover basic drone flying in accordance with the CAAC (Civil Aviation Administration of China). They are as follows according to UAV Systems International:

General China Drone Laws:

Drone Less than 7Kg? OK for Operation

Drone 7Kg – 116Kg? Licence from CAAC required

>116Kg? Pilots licence and UAV certification required for operation

Drone flights in controlled areas require approval in advance

Approval from CAAC is needed for all commercial drone flights

Japan being the innovative technological country I’ve come to know and love, I assumed it would lead the way in its regulation to try and emerge this technology. It did take off in its beginning in the country with legislation giving it every opportunity to be prevalent in the country, quickly. However, a drone carrying radioactive substances landed on government building with the prime minister located inside, and since the policies have become increasingly stronger as It is now illegal to fly drones in public parks. Thus, according to UAV systems international

General Japan Drone Laws:

You must fly your drone below 150 meters

You must fly your drone at least 9Km away from airports

You must not fly your drone over crowds

You must stay away from all power lines

In accordance with the road transport law you are not allowed to fly your drone over any roads

In accordance with the land property law you are not allowed to fly over any property without permission from the owner

Osaka has banned drone use in all parks within the city limits

I also researched and uncovered laws in Korea, Singapore and Thailand and speculated their relationships and similarities in relation to Australia, Japan and China.

I closely examined China’s drone development as a nation and one way this was made possible, in conjunction with the Ellis reading, investigating to “forms of representation that deepen our capacity to empathise with people who are different from us”, thus I studied, and at times struggled with, the language and cultural expressions of Asian countries.

The following is the expression of each country and the associate verb or noun that comes with the English term “drone”

Japaneseドローン – growl, groan, roar, snarl, moan, drone

Chinese 無人駕駛飛機 – hiss, neigh, hissing, fizzing, buzz, drone

Korean – 무인 비행기

mu-in bihaeng-gi – buzz and buzz, hum, boom

Indonesian – dengung -rumble, thunder, propaganda

This details fears and anxieties perhaps explained in the way the expression drone is culturally constructed with an unknown element and a restricted control sector for particular countries. All these words displayed negative connotations and were associated with almost scary meanings when paired with the English equivalent to the expression drone.

China being perhaps the most lenient in their policy of flying in comparison to other Asian continents has implemented drone technology into their military capabilities and has seen tremendous success. It has successfully flown their first 20 minute stealth drone, Lijian, as a part of their innovative advancements. Authorities have suggested that the technology can strengthen intelligence gathering techniques on their neighbouring countries. It is powered by a single jet engine and is the result of a partnership between Chinese aerospace firms Shenyang Aviation and Hongdu Aviation Industry. Lijian, which means “sharp sword” in Putonghua again comes back to a hostile and potentially dangerous connotation when thinking about it to the citizens of the population, and thus it’s surrounding countries.

A Chinese company has been predicted to control over half the UAV manufacturing industry over the next 10 years according to studies in the Forecast International. The report predicts that the global drone market will more than double in the next ten years, rising from $942 million in 2014 to an annual $2.3 billion in 2023. The reasoning behind the market increased hasn’t been linked to increase in production, more the increase in cost of the technology.

“The report forecasts that the Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC), a state-owned Chinese defence company, will lead the world in UAV production. According to Forecast International, AVIC will produce about $5.76 billion worth of UAVs through 2023. This is more than half of the UAVs by value that will be produced during this time period. Nearly all these will be sold to Chinese consumers.”(The Diplomat, 2014)

In terms of commercial drones flown by citizens, China’s DJI brand of drones are a top choice of entrepreneurs and enthusiasts worldwide, particularly in the U.S in areas such as cinematography, agriculture, construction and surveillance. Mr Wang’s DJI creation is a new breed of Chinese company. China became an economic juggernaut by in large part manufacturing cheap goods for companies from other countries. In recent years, a handful of Chinese firms, including Huawei Technologies Co., Alibaba Group Holding Ltd. (which is an online trade business)   and Lenovo Group Ltd (electronics)., have evolved from imitators to global leaders in their sectors. DJI has taken that further by creating a product that is, in many ways, the first of its kind. At a time when most drones were assembled from kits by enthusiasts, it developed systems that stabilized both the aircraft and its camera, and packaged them into an inexpensive device ready to fly out of the box. This information sparked personal epiphany when I was conducting my research in rural New South Wales, with people showing interest in a project that started as an idea. Australia is still figuring out the drone’s potential and my plans to introduce the technology further into Australia especially in these places where it’s virtually unknown.

Tensions have been brewing in the wake that China is well known to have plans for its military drones (UAVs) to conduct missions that are of less importance and more ‘test’ missions for] example it has been reported that Beijing had considered conducting a drone strike somewhere in the Golden Triangle to eliminate a Myanmar drug dealer who was wanted in China. Although around the same time of year, Japan was celebrating its nationalisation of the islands of Senkaku when authorities detected a labelled unidentified UAV which interfered with their aircraft, flying around the islands. Initially China didn’t claim it, however came around to say it belonged to them and that it had been on a routine mission around the area. In response, Japanese authorities have been reported on intending to shoot down any instances of UAV activity entering its airspace. China returned by saying it would consider this an act of war. Very interesting to consider when China is leading the way with their military UAVs being produced to a global market, and Japans need for the technology.

Zachary Keck 2014, China to Lead World in Drone Production, The Diplomat, viewed 24th September 2015, <http://thediplomat.com/2014/05/china-to-lead-world-in-drone-production/>

Arthur Herman 2014, Japans Coming Drone Revolution, Hudson Institute, viewed 24th September 2015, <http://www.hudson.org/research/10685-japan-s-coming-drone-revolution>

Jack Nicas 2014, Who Builds The World’s Most Popular Drones, The Wall Street Journal, viewed 24th September 2015, <http://www.wsj.com/articles/who-builds-the-worlds-most-popular-drones-1415645659&gt;

Coco Feng 2015, Evolution of the species: world’s largest drone producer DJI plots open platform as China eyes customised drones, South China Morning Post, viewed 24th September 2015, < http://www.scmp.com/tech/social-gadgets/article/1845562/evolution-species-worlds-largest-drone-producer-dji-plots-open>

He Huifeng 2015, China restricts exports of ‘high performance’ drones as national security fears heighte, South China Morning Post, viewed 21st September 2015, <http://www.scmp.com/tech/enterprises/article/1845754/china-restricts-exports-military-drones-national-security-fears>

DroneInfo 2015, The Current state of Global Drone Regulations: Drone regulations across the globe are rapidly evolving, we are working to stay on top of them, The Drone Info, viewed 23rd September 2015, <http://www.thedroneinfo.com/the-current-state-of-global-drone-regulations/>

UAV Systems International year unknown, Drone Laws by Country, UAV Systems International, viewed 20th September 2015, <https://uavsystemsinternational.com/>

Christopher Harress 2014, The Rise Of China’s Drone Fleet And Why It May Lead To Increased Tension In Asia, International Business Times, viewed 24th September 2015, <http://www.ibtimes.com/rise-chinas-drone-fleet-why-it-may-lead-increased-tension-asia-1535718>

Google 2015, Google Translate (available online), viewed 25th September 2015, <https://www.google.com.au/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=google+translate>

Ellis, L, Adams T.E, Bochner A.P 2011, ‘History of Auto-ethnography’, Auto-ethnography: An Overview, vol.12, no.1, viewed 24th September 2015,< http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1589/3095#g1>

The Responsible ‘Pilot’

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Last week I purchased a Parrot A.R Drone 2.0 to fly and video various elements of agriculture and examine the way it can improve productivity and investigate the all-round usefulness of the technology for farmers. This prompted speculation and curiosity into Drone, quadcopter, RPA (remotely piloted aircraft) or UAVs (Un-manned aerial vehicles) policy and regulation in the Asian Pacific region, and develop an expertise to conduct a project that aims to advocate responsible drone flying using countries in Asia as examples. I got my own basic pamphlet within the box detailing the rules here in Australia to which I’d like to contrast with that in Asian countries and then explore why this could be the case.  Current Australian Regulation according to UAV international looks like this:

General Australian Drone Laws:

  • You may NOT fly your drone closer than 30 meters to vehicles, boats or buildings that are on private property or you must have explicit permission from the private property owner.
  • You may NOT fly your drone over populated areas such as beaches, other people’s backyards, heavily populated parks or sports areas where games are currently in session.
  • You may NOT operate your drone within 5.5 Km radius of any aerodrome, airfield, airport, seaplane taking off or landing, or helicopter landing sites located at hospitals, police stations or other locations. It is YOUR RESPONSIBILITY to be aware of your surroundings and ignorance is no defence.
  • You may ONLY operate your drone during daylight.
  • You MUST ONLY operate your drone in good weather conditions and maintain visual contact with your UAV at all times.
  • You may NOT fly your drone above 400 feet (123 meters).
  • UAV must NOT drop or discharge an object from your drone that poses a risk to another aircraft, persons or property.
  • Approval is required for operation of a drone weighing 150 Kilograms (fixed wing) or 100 Kilograms (rotary wing).
  • A drone must NOT be operated within 30 meters of a person not directly associated with the operation of that UAV.
  • You may NOT operate a drone using FPV equipment.

Regulation in regards to the use of drones in Asia varies from country to country, from completely outlawed to slowly adapting the popularity and changing aerospace laws to suit consumer needs.

Singapore

Recently Singapore have got on board with regulating the use of UAVs (drones) in their city-state by introducing an online portal system that allows individuals do go online and fill out the necessary documentation so they may fly their drones. “According to the CAAS website, two permits – an operator permit and an activity permit – are required for flying drones that weigh more than 7 kilograms (15.4 pounds) for any purpose. Those who fly drones for business purposes will need both permits regardless of the weight of the aircraft. In contrast, those who do so for recreation or research do not require a permit if the weight of the aircraft is less than 7kg. If drones are flown indoors at a private residence or indoor area and the flying does not affect the general public at all, no permits are required.” (The Diplomat, 2015).

It also states that additional permits must be acquired if the craft that is being flown has potential to drop items, if they are to be flown over protected or populated areas and events and taking photos, such as military bases, the Istana, Parliament House, Supreme Court and other government buildings.

China

China are currently reviewing extensively their drone regulations and  have a general set of policies in place to cover basic drone flying in accordance with the CAAC (Civil Aviation Administration of China). They are as follows according to UAV Systems International:

General China Drone Laws:

  • Drone Less than 7Kg? OK for Operation
  • Drone 7Kg – 116Kg? Licence from CAAC required
  • >116Kg? Pilots licence and UAV certification required for operation
  • Drone flights in controlled areas require approval in advance
  • Approval from CAAC is needed for all commercial drone flights

Japan

Japan being the innovative technological country I’ve come to know and love, I assumed it would lead the way in its regulation to try and emerge this technology. It did take off in its beginning in the country with legislation giving it every opportunity to be prevalent in the country, quickly. However, a drone carrying radioactive substances landed on government building with the prime minister located inside, and since the policies have become increasingly stronger as It is now illegal to fly drones in public parks. Thus, according to UAV systems international

General Japan Drone Laws:

  • You must fly your drone below 150 meters
  • You must fly your drone at least 9Km away from airports
  • You must not fly your drone over crowds
  • You must stay away from all power lines
  • In accordance with the road transport law you are not allowed to fly your drone over any roads
  • In accordance with the land property law you are not allowed to fly over any property without permission from the owner
  • Osaka has banned drone use in all parks within the city limits

Thailand

Thailand is as strict as it comes when it comes to regulation in the Asian pacific region, with a solid ban on all drone quadcopters fitted with a camera device. Thus according to ThaiVisa.com, ” The flying of drones fitted with cameras will not be allowed by members of the general public. Anyone wanting to fly a drone in Thailand will also need have to seek permission from the Transport Ministry.”

However, only business’s that have a permit and require aerial photography will be permitted to fly drones with cameras attached. Bangkok has prohibited such flying over military bases, palaces and parks in the city.

Korea

According to Korean transportation ministry the number of illegal drone incidents from 10 cases from 2012 to 49 last year, due to people not being aware of drone laws. These regulations are for all drones commercial and personal use regardless of size.

The following rules apply:

  • No flying at night (So between sunset and sunrise)
  • No flying near an airfield (within 9.3km)
  • No flying over a crowded area/ venue (sports stadium, concert)
  • No flying in restricted area (DRZ) for military reasons – Government permission required
  • No flying higher than 150 metres

Also:

  • No dumping materials from the drone
  • No drinking alcohol while flying drone
  • The drone must be visable from the naked eye whilst flying

http://www.thedroneinfo.com/the-current-state-of-global-drone-regulations/

https://uavsystemsinternational.com/

International Students in Australia

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International students are given the opportunity to come to places like Australia to study and immerse them with the culture, yet sometimes the reception isn’t always positive. “A crucial element in the achievement of success for international students is not only their academic adjustment but also their adjustment to the social and cultural environment.”(Kell, P and Vogl, G, 2007) Socialising and deciphering written English language to spoken Australian ‘colloquial’ English language can prove challenging and often takes longer than international students expected to understand.

Within university life and in particular, campus living, international students at the University of Wollongong are abundant. Being able to meet them and ask a little about what they’ve experienced so far comes in slight variation, with some enjoying the task of adapting to the “Aussie” slang and try and incorporate it into their learnt speaking English, predominantly these students are from Europe or the US. The Chinese exchange students tend to keep to themselves in groups of other international or Australian born Chinese groups. These Asian groups, according to Kell and Vogl, are seen as homogenous or of the same kind, and it’s detailed that they then find it hard to fit into the mix of cultures and their overall well-being in Australia as they’re dealing with their own hardships including “homesickness, financial difficulties, language difficulties, problems dealing with university staff and other authorities, loneliness, isolation from other classmates and anxiousness about speaking in the classroom in front of classmates and lecturers” .”(Kell, P and Vogl, G, 2007)

The idea of language plays a major role in the adjustment of living and later studying in another country, and Australia is perhaps the greatest challenge due to our iconic accent. Studies have shown that the English spoken language of Australia and the written version vary tremendously and have been noted by international students as one of the key barriers in their understanding locally. These students spend time prior to coming to Australia mastering the written, formal English language yet when they arrive the “local accents, fast speech and Australian colloquialisms” reduce their ability to communicate effectively to locals. It’s noted that it’s not that these students find Aussie students unfriendly or disrespectful; it’s that they’re unaware on how to approach and/or hold a conversation fluently.

Some Australians have a tendency to uphold negative stereotypes towards international students deeming them to be lazy, boring or useless and thus, “too parochial, trapped within an Australia-centred view of a diverse and complex world” (Simon Marginson, 2012).  Studies have proven the potential in students coming from overseas being effective and motivated workers who enjoy the mix of culture and professionalism. Their records from the institutions they have moved from indicate they’re more than ready for the workplace, excelling in marks sometimes greater than that within Australia.  This concept of ethnocentrism which is “characterized by or based on the attitude that one’s own group is superior” (Sukhmani Khorana, 2015) keeps a narrow view and doesn’t allow for equality within the learning experience. The Indian and Australian governments are working on improving these situations for International Indian students studying in Australia, with a renewed focus on recognition of qualifications and a $1 million boost to the Australia-India Education Council.

References:

Beckie Smith 2015, India, Australia to further collaboration, qualification recognition, The Pie News, Viewed 31st August 2015, < http://thepienews.com/news/india-australia-to-further-collaboration-qualification-recognition/&gt;

Kell, P and Vogl, G (2007) ‘International Students: Negotiating life and study in Australia through Australian Englishes’,  Everyday Multiculturalism Conference Proceedings, Macquarie University, 28-29 September 2006.

Marginson, S (2012) ‘International education as self-formation: Morphing a profit-making business into an intercultural experience’, Lecture delivered at the University of Wollongong, 21 February 2012, available online at http://focusonteaching.uow.edu.au/content/groups/public/@web/@cedir/documents/doc/uow119828.pdf

Sukhmani Khorana 2015, ‘Internationalising Education and Cultural Competence’, Lecture Powerpoint Slides, BCM111, University of Wollongong, viewed 30th August 2015, < https://moodle.uowplatform.edu.au/course/view.php?id=6455&gt;

Globalisation: Holden Car Manufacturing

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chevrolet_lumina_ss_vs_holden_commodore_ss_wp_by_the_lexus_guy789-d50kp4s(http://chevrolet-evilimpala.deviantart.com/art/chevrolet-lumina-SS-vs-holden-commodore-ss-WP-303296572)

Globalisation affects a population in many different ways for better and for worse, and is “influenced by technological development and economic, political, and military interests. It is characterised by a worldwide increase in interdependence, interactivity, interconnectedness, and the virtually instantaneous exchange of information”(O’Shaughnessy and Stadler, 458). With new technologies, and improved trade relations, countries are looking to foreign markets to increase their profits from a business perspective.  Individually this can be an advantage as better access to news, information, foods and cheaper products become available to the developed countries on board. However, the bad side of Globalisation is that some countries are forced into these agreements in order to stay ready for international competition, and to avoid loss of industry. These moves are showcased in Australia’s car manufacturing giant ‘Holden’ to cease their manufacturing work on Australian shores as of 2017, and instead import their vehicles from General Motors (GM) to then sell locally.

International General Motors executive Stefan Jacoby says “ (it’s) Impossible to manufacture cars in Australia regardless of government assistance (if given any)” and adds that it is “impossible to manufacture ALL cars due to high prices and the government’s decision to sign the fair trade agreement”, thus low production rates and high Australian dollar means increased prices (Global Education, 2014), which therefore gives imports the upper hand.

“In 2010, the world’s population of cars reached one billion. High growth rates of car ownership in Thailand, Indonesia, China, India and Brazil reflect economic development and catch-up demand in those countries. Globalisation has meant increasing wealth and demand for cars in newly emerging economies. Expanding markets mean continued growth for car manufacturers and related employment. Congestion, pollution, fuel and steel availability challenge future expansion, but research continues to improve safety and efficiency”. (Global Education, 2014)

For Holden in Australia this means 100 years of manufacturing locally will cease resulting in an estimated 1400 jobs lost within 3 years. Arguments surrounding this decision have been mixed, with some people praising the move as it keeps the brand of Holden around longer, and some customers believing the manufacturing done by GM in America is of better standard and performance. Whilst others, it’s a case of globalisation gone wrong with yet another iconic “Aussie” brand taken over by foreign market.

The car industry has been globalised from its early days. There has been fierce competition between countries to invent better cars and obtain finance to manufacture. Countries such as Australia imported or assembled cars from Europe or the USA. Cars are still often designed in one country and built from components that originated in a number of countries by a company based in a third country. (Global Education, 2014)

The impact of globalisation in Australia continues to shift in opinion and in terms of car manufacturing, I believe is heading in a positive direction. The name Holden is trademark to car sales and ownership within Australia and to preserve the longevity by accepting terms with American manufacturing is going to keep a lot of enthusiasts satisfied. With similar circumstances at competing brands like Toyota and Ford, Holden has taken the first step into a successful future.

References

2014, Globalisation and the Car Industry, Global Education, viewed 12th August 2015, <http://www.globaleducation.edu.au/case-studies/globalisation-car-industry.html>

Tim Beissman 2013, Holden confirms Australian Manufacturing closer in 2017, Car Advice, viewed 12th August 2015, <http://www.caradvice.com.au/263976/holden-confirms-australian-manufacturing-closure-in-2017/>

Joshua Dowling 2013, Holden Shutdown: General Motors international boss Stefan Jacoby says Australia is better without car manufacturing, news.com.au, viewed 12th August 2015, <http://www.news.com.au/technology/innovation/holden-shutdown-general-motors-international-boss-stefan-jacoby-says-australia-is-better-without-car-manufacturing/story-fnjwucvh-1227183680228>

Appadurai, A (1996) ‘Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy’, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization, Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 27-47.

O’Shaughnessy, M and Stadler, J (2008) ‘Globalisation’, Media and Society (fifth edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 458-471.