Repetition and Variation Final Project

Posted on Updated on

For a final computational media project I’ve decided to use the notion of variation and repetition to create a work that looks at the layering process of 3D printing combined with various other platforms in this contingency communicated in the gallery. My inspiration came from works that involve repetition in the form of video and audio mediums such as ‘Video Room 1000’ by Canzona (2010) and Alvin Lucier’s ‘I am sitting in a room’ (1969); however I’ve extended these formats to create a 3D physical objects by means of an STL file format, photocopying, photo-printing and audio wave. The work I’ve created is 3D printing a form of code that is a small cube showing an extrusion of time from space, space from time then juxtaposing those two movements (in video and object). I’ve filmed this process then filmed the film of a time lapse (x8 original filming) 7 times increasing the playback speed by two each time. The changes are a jolted and quality is jeopardised. Next, I’ve created the audio of the print job in a way that’s layered 30 secs of the sounds generated layered upon one another 7 times also. This showed distortion quickly and how the number of repetitions affected the generation of content. The next stage was photocopying the cube on a standard photocopying machine, then, again repeating it with the result 6 times to observe changes. Lastly, I took a photo of the cube on the same SLR camera and later took a photo of the photo I took on the screen 6 times, which however showed little to no variation regardless of the repetitions. Showing in photos one column the original photo, the photo of the screen on the computer screen and the original printed in black and white.









computer (1)










What To Do: MEDA102

Posted on Updated on

My brain has been in a state of panic and loop since learning of the freedom with the final project. From the start, something that involves repetition or iteration needs to be ‘aesthetic’ and entertaining otherwise the viewer looses interest quickly. I liked to play with the idea of 3D Printing something, where layer upon layer in space is utilised in this concept of the same process over and over. I’ve utilised this technology throughly last semster and have obtained a substantial amount of knowledge on using it and talking about it. It’s something i want to involve myself in with future projects and believe it can work it’s way into an aesthetic world of digital media. I had the idea of Live streaming this process from the 3D printer at main campus via a webcam to a projector at iC (innovation campus) which also covers a series of wavelength iterations to project a live happening through a signal onto the wall. The problems i’m foreseeing is what to print? perhaps the object result doesn’t matter, more the process is the aesthetic, or perhaps pre-recording the job and fast playing it almost as it arises into life.

Something I would look into is the idea of  animation, and traditionally it being the layering of frames in time sequence to create movement and ideally life to objects. Yet take 3D Printing, it’s a layering process as well, yet it’s done in the space to create a physical form. The great challenge is to represent feelings, emotion and/or life to a material object, and 3D prints i believe give a concept physical form and is brought to life over a series of layered slices.


I researched into art works that have been created using 3D Printing for some inspiration and took screenshots to showcase them:


This scaled version of a place in the world is a showcase of the re-mediation and transformation of a physical artefact allows a detailed account of the landmark for those who haven’t been. touching on the guest lecturer Ted Mitew, when he talked about the traditional armour and artefacts being recreated, this takes huge attractions and see’s the arrival of them to scaled models able to be held.

This is the process in Flashforge, a software tool used to slice the model into segments and showcase what it will look like inside the platform of the printer.


Some examples of the recording of 3D Printing i’ve found elsewhere:

Another direction I headed was further development on my expertise with drones. On the MEDADADA website I came across something that was really amazing and something I was curious in how to go about recreating something to its effect. It was the following video:

So i started researching some art works that could perhaps incorporate drone usage for repetition and iteration, and i started finding works that were graffiti based using the quadcopter to perform the painting. 

More research found the idea of a drone ‘Selfie’… whereby the drone takes a photo of itself in a mirror or reflection and showcased it in the way the common trend of social media personnel. This was an interesting foundation to explore within the final project as it extended into a new era of photography and life quality we give to the UAV. As i have the same drone, this would be an achievable investigation.

Overall, for this project I want to investigate something with an emerging new media platform and turn it into an artistic piece of installation, so that the appeal for the devices is more widespread throughout the media arts community.

Computer Coding Exercises: MEDA102

Posted on Updated on

The simplicity in the work for me stands out as the aesthetic, and the opportunity for reproduction or development. The concept I was looking to convey in this code is the colour scheme of one rectangle following another to introduce iteration. The fill colour would align in some way to the next or previous stroke and continue into the next drawing function. The overlapping was also meant to challenge iteration as something that’s the same thing in the same spot, no cursor movement is the same and each key serves a different colour in a different grid point. As I related back to advice given to me in class when manipulating code in “stick to lines”, this made sense to me in terms of choosing an inspiration from “Dsaa La Martinière Diderot” on ( as the ellipse scheme was used throughout the introductory period of coding and as a dynamic in my work. I enjoyed the task of trial and error in my research engagement to the art, rather than a conceptual ‘original’ creation. Thus, random plotting to a known result of colours and shapes and observing the outcome until a certain aesthetic grabbed my attention, evidenced in the transparent view of key ‘s’. allowed annotations to be made as well as this method,

Dsaa La Martinière Diderot 2015, ellipses_colors, Open Processing, viewed 21st September 2015, <;

Progressive states of the code

Screen Shot 2015-09-22 at 3.24.00 PM

Screen Shot 2015-09-22 at 4.07.49 PM

Screen Shot 2015-09-22 at 4.19.15 PM


//Comments are used for making notes to help people better understand programs. A comment begins with two forward slashes “//”
float posX=250;//The float is used to describe, similar to an integer, a numerical value, however with a fractional value(decimal)
float posY=250;//position
float vitesseX;//axis
float vitesseY;

//each function is a specifc piece of instructions that are called upon whenever the name is required
void setup() { // the brackets show where the data is passed into the function
size(900,800);//this determines the size of the canvas or display window that the program runs the code inputted
background(255); //the colour in which the display window behind the art will be
smooth(); //allows the geometry (in my case circles) to have smoothed edges
loop(); //function that causes draw() to excute continuously, in my case the ellipse being a dynamic sketch (moving)
//the semicolon is used to end statements or lines of code
void draw() { //runs continuously until program is stopped
rect(mouseX,mouseY,200,200); //the ellipse with continue to appear as the mouse is moved around the X and Y axis.
//the 200 number reprents the size (dimensions) so if the user wanted a slightly oval shape, the values would be different
} //rectangle is the geonometric shape created within the code

void keyPressed() //key represents the keys on the keyboard for this to work
if (key == ‘s’) //the ‘s’ on the keyboard changes the colour of the ellipse, in this case to aqua
fill(13,255,209); //colour inside the shape
stroke(586,88,54,250); } //the outline colour
//used these two as base colours that explores the use of iteration
if (key == ‘a’) //the ‘a’ on the keyboard changes the colour of the ellipse, in this case to pink
fill(586,88,54,250); //fill resembles stroke from ‘s’
stroke(13,255,209); } //stroke resembles fill from key ‘s’
if (key == ‘m’) //the ‘m’ on the keyboard changes the colour of the ellipse, in this case to yellow
stroke(13,255,209); }// stroke resembles fill from key ‘s’

The Electric Telegraph: Analogue Coding Exercises

Posted on


The Electric Telegraph was revolutionary in its development because it changed the way people received information. It’s a device that allows a message to be sent over long distances without sending the physical letters. It’s done through electrical wires which are then decoded after being received. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica a telegraph is “any device or system that allows the transmission of information by coded signal over distance”. Communication travel was increased in time taken to send and receive and wasn’t affected by environmental factors, where previous technologies struggled such as ships in the ocean battling rough sea conditions. The electric telegraph was prolific with journalists, bankers, merchants, stock brokers and government officials often using it to count election results. Before the telegraph the time taken to send and receive messages and news to other countries and regions could surpass weeks and even months. It has allowed a more ‘rapid communication’ whereby physical deliveries are not necessary.

Morse code was a prolific real-time/audio communication code system before the radio telegraph made it become obsolete. The first commercial telegraph was sent in 1837; however in 1838 Samuel Morse creates a long distance communication model using dot-dash codes (Oscillations in electrical current). Thus, Morse code was invented and to send a telegram you could hand deliver or telephone your message to a telegraph office. There, an operator enters the message into a computer, which then – obsolete translates it into code and sends it to its destination. And the receiving end, machines translate the encoded message back into words and print it out. The telegraph office may hand deliver or telephone the message to the person receiving it.

marco03A Man transmitting the first official messages of the commercial wireless telegraph service

This method of codification relied heavily on the audio medium of communication to decode the message being sent as Samuel Morse discovered that he couldn’t send voice messages, yet could transmit code from pulses. He created a code, which is later adapted to international Morse code, based on a dot-dash system and sound representing each letter of the alphabet. The information or language is codified and then a key makes it representational, thus the origin for communication with this model. An in-class demonstration of how audible coding can be used to create a shape or object with similar techniques. Across the room we were able to set up a key and a sound to code specific directions in order to produce a high heel shoe. This first-hand experience represents the way in which an operator would have either read or listened to the Morse code and deciphered the message according. An activity that showcased the advancement of the Fax machine, which evolved from Morse code, in transmitting one electric pulse down a phone line to represent the words and picture.

The electric telegraph expanded with the incorporation of the railway wiring, which allowed individual networks across Europe to connect to larger populations and networks. This initial networking and structure of wires, was the basis for future telephones and internet networking. The first (working) Trans-Atlantic Cable was laid in 1866, with an estimated speed of 8 words per minute, and originally valued at $100 per word. This specific type of coding system used Alphabetic keys to construct sentences for the decoder to receive their message.

Atlantic_cable_MapTrans-Atlantic Cable

With the first radio telegraph being sent in 1895, people’s perception of the world changed significantly. It stemmed thought of what was available for them to be able to access in terms of information & news. Suddenly the world was a metaphorical body with “a network or iron wires” (New York Tribune). Thus; interest grew with international relations and individuals realised that they could follow events in real time, such as the stock market, access weather reports and sporting scores. Extending on this, the need for a standardisation of time was important as suddenly people worked out it’s not mutual globally. The body became the world with a network make up, thus “by means of electricity, the world of matter has become a great nerve, vibrating thousands of miles in a breathless point of time? Rather, the round globe is a vast head, a brain, instinct with intelligence” [Nathaniel Hawthorne (1851)]. The Electric Telegraph, however, was succeeded by developing technology and running off the same principle people continued to improve this into the introduction of radio and beyond. A simply genius coding technology that was prolific in maritime and aerospace communication until the late 1990s.

Technological determinism is a term used to describe how technology influences human activity and affects, in positive or negative ways, our evolution. The Electric Telegraph has paved the way for communication resources we have available today including the telephone, radio, television transmission and modern computers. All which have coding practises which allows them to operate based on a set system that translates language and symbols into readable content. Marshall McLuhan was a theorist in technological determinism, and is famous for saying “the medium is the message.” Rightly, he concluded that “technology—such as the printing press, radio and TV—created new “spaces” for humans to inhabit and exist mentally and physically in; and as people adapted to these new spaces, they changed: they evolved. The printing press gave us the Gutenberg Bible, which gave us Protestantism, etc. Radio gave us popular music, Hitler & FDR. TV gave us JFK and couch potatoes” (, 2015)

The Electric telegraph has all but been overtaken by other forms of communication today; however this technology has played a significant role in the connectivity of the modern world with services such as Facebook, text messaging and email. It has allowed the world to move into an always linked society, with the use of coding for commands and representation of language through systemisation.


CyberCollege Internet Campus 2013, Foundations of Radio, CyberCollege, viewed 19th August 2015, <;

Dan Gould 2011, In ‘The Transformation’ by James Gleik, The Author explores how a costly toy came to transform our world, PSFK, Viewed 19th August 2015, <;, Electric Telegraph Timeline, Dada, Viewed 18th August 2015, <;

Etienne Deleflie, 2015, Community and Communication, Lecture Slides, MEDA102, University of Wollongong, Online Slides (Moodle), viewed 18th August 2015, <;

JEB Five 2013, History of Morse Code, online video, 26th September, YouTube, viewed 19th August 2015, <;

Kurt Heidinger 2011, Technological Determinism: What is it?, Biocitizen, viewed 19th August 2015, <;

Ted Mitew, 2015, A global Nervous System: from the telegraph to cyberspace, Lecture Online Video, DIGC202, University of Wollongong, Prezi, viewed 15th August 2015, <;

Wall Drawing: 10,000 lines

Posted on Updated on

Firstly, an algorithm is a process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem solving operations especially by a computer. Sol LeWitt’s Wall Drawing 86 was our title for the drawing in the gallery space with instructions of “Ten thousand lines about 10 inches (25 cm) long, covering the wall evenly”

A comparison of ours to the original work

11910949_10207470788067427_1612467020_n    Our rendition

walldrawing86What the work originally looked like

We took a slightly different approach to complete this task by creating our own tool to do 6 lines at a time. We found two timber pieces of wood and measured 25cm along and used duck tape to stick them to it. This was then manned by two people and stroked across the wall being measured with a metal ruler. This technique was so much more effective then doing it individually, yet still keeping fairly straight and consistent.


To complete this effectively, plan your time around making the utensils for drawing. Once the tools are made the exercise isn’t too time consuming because you’re drawing 6 lines per hit. Before long the lines accumulate and the aesthetic is obvious. Complacency can be a factor as well as wanting to go to fast, again just plan around this and keep at it, as the end result is actually really interesting.

For such a massive amount of lines to be completed in such a short amount of time, was probably the most difficult part of the task. Originally it seemed impossible, yet we reached approximately 3 thousand lines by the time we’d finished about 1hr of drawing.

The Human Fax Machine

Posted on Updated on

A fax machine was revolutionary for it’s time invented by Alexander Bain in 1843, the evolved fax machine today looks at each line separately, detects the black and white areas and transmits one electric pulse down a phone line to represent the words/picture. It transmits instantly and these pulses are used to control the printer. As paper moves down the  bright light shines onto it, white areas reflect lots of light where as the black areas shine little light. A rotating drum like object marks the paper from a laser that fills the ink, at 1,300Hz pen will be applied to the paper and at 800Hz tone takes it off.

Our goal send a audible message to another group to dictate a drawing or piece of artwork. This was achieved by a barrier dividing the class room and getting given instruments to create a key series of beats or volumes for the other side to interpret. We established with the decoder’s, a compass like structure initially that had N,NE,E,SE,S,SW,W,NW and they were then numbered 1-8 which meant what direction the drawing had to go, which was followed by the number of claps, which represented how long the stroke was. 9 bangs we devised would represent a circle, and a shake was a break in the line in the given direction

11721877_10207405298790236_1282735856_nHuman Fax Machine System

The opposite group were given the stimulus and carried out the corresponding coding, whereby we decoded their beats, claps and shakes to eventually finish with a pretty accurate outline of a stiletto shoe. The result followed:


Within this system, we found some learning points that were valued and interesting. Firstly, the initial “Handshake” to verify that each other were ready for the transmission was lacking and is something that is needed when transmitting through sound. Sabotage from other groups was evident with the clapping technique. People in other groups soon learned that they could affect our drawing if the strategically clapped when we were listening out for them.Lastly error checking again proved to be something that needed to be prioritised, as a simple mishearing that needed to be repeated couldn’t happen with words or direct viewed signals to each other. This could have proved effective if later on fine details were needed to be added to the drawing. Overall however, the technique proved relatively effective and when the picture was showed to another classmate, they were able to distinguish a shoe.

Code And Communication

Posted on Updated on

Rees's_Cyclopaedia_Chappe_telegraph Chappe’s Model 

Chappe’s Telegraph was the method in which my group sent visual code to another. We were sent around 30-50m away from one another to the top of a building balcony with a set sentence to send our peers. This however was our major downfall and learning curve as we believed we were thinking of our own message to send and only had written down 10 letters to use for “hello”. This particular concise technique was impractical however for when we needed to send the set message from Mat.

We used our bodies to physically create the shapes from Chappe’s model and were interpreted by the other group effectively.Some noise factors included the complexity of the shapes unable to be replicated by our bodies, and some that looked very similar to others. Also a “next letter” check would have been useful for the second ‘L’ in Hello. I’ve taken away the disadvantages of abbreviation or concise techniques when coding a message, and that it is imperative to have a whole key for a system.

When it was our turn to decode the opposite groups message, they devised their own system of clapping to represent letters, starting from 26 claps to represent A and working their way down. To get past 10 claps, one fist was raised, and 20, two.

The Message we decoded from their signals was “SOS we ‘r’ inking”… which was later thought about and concluded correctly to “SOS we are sinking”. Some type of error checking in this would have greatly improved the result as we needed them to repeat certain letters and they perceived it as we were ready to proceed. Also a physical “SPACE” key would have de cluttered the words into separate words instead of us guessing when a word had finished.